Buki can be found in the poems – in everyday life of Georgia: ahead of the war and after the victory, during the struggle, coronation, feast, hunting and party. In the poem of great Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli “The Knight in the panther’s skin” it is clearly shown that during crowning the king it was accepted “to play” on Buki. From set of historical sources it is possible to allocate Iranian “Visramiani” in which is described how sounds of Buki pealed out when Ramin was going in military sampaign. Mostly Buki had been played in military in military actions and served as the alarm tool.
In Georgia Buki as an instrument is saved in Svaneti, where it is known as Sankeri. In Samegrelo it is named as Oke and was played during the big celebrations. For example, duing the Easter parade on the front row were standard-bearers, then two Mebukes (a man playing Buki) were playng Buki, they were followed by the people.
In Kartli Buki is known as Gorototo. The tradition of this instrument is confirmed in Abkhazia, where it is named as Abiki and there Buki existed until the second half of 19th century. There Buki has one addition function – the shepherds were damning thieves of the cattle.
Since the beginning of 20th century Buki isn’t used anymore in Georgia.
On the occasion of International Museum Day National Museum of Georgian Folk Songs and Musical Instruments organized Memorial evening in honor of Kakhi Rosebashvili (80th anniversary), Georgian Ethnomusicologist, composer and scientist.
The evening was conducted by Ketevan Baiashvili, ethnomusicologist and museum worker. The workers from Folk State Center and Conservatory as well as disciples and Mr. Rosebashvili’s family members said memorial speeches about Kakhi Rosebashvili.
The whole evening was accompanied by various ensembles: choir led by Malkhaz Erkvanidze, ensemble “Keria” led by Tamaz Gabisonia and etc.
Daira belongs to the group of percussion instruments. The function of the instrument is to accompany dances and to emphasize rhythm. Daira can be found in East Georgia, Tusheti, Samegrelo and Racha. There is no difference between these instruments of various regions.
The hoop of Daira is made by wood and is covered by the slim layer of leather. Within the hoop there are hanged clanging things – slim and round small plates and bells. The hoop is encrusted by white and black bone.
In Tusheti there has been used sheep’s skin for Daira and on the hoop have been hanged moneys, but in Kakheti there has been hanged sheep’s belly.
While playing Daira is kept with both hands. The hoop is reclined on the thumb fingers and other fingers lay on the membrane and with these fingers sound is produced. The left hand’s fingers mostly are motionless and Daira is played by right hand’s fingers.
Generally Daira is played by women during dancing. The instrument is accompanied in instrumental ensembles. For example in Samegrelo it is used with Salamuri, in Kakheti – with Panduri. Several Dairas can’t be used together. In Racha Daira is played during the play “Tskhenkatsoba”: two or three boys are playing, one of them bestrides and all of them are walking in the village and playing Daira.
Author: Otar Chijavadze
Editor: Baia Aseishvili
Editorial group: Ekaterine Shoshiashvili, Nana Valishvili
Varieties of musical instruments and groups in ancient Georgia are reviewed in the book by Otar Chijavadze on the basis of ancient Georgian written works (IX-XVIII cc.) accompanied with numerous illustrations. While classification the author relies conception by Ivane Javakhishvili though he has different and scientifically grounded position when evaluates this or that particular instrument, group or sub-group.
The book is written thirty years ago and it has been published for the first time in 2009. The rich material and conclusions will undoubtedly be interesting and useful for specialists, researchers, ethnomusicologists and students. The manuscript is housed in National Museum of Georgian Folk Songs and Musical Instruments.
Otar Chijavadze (1919-1998)
Scientist, researcher of Georgian music history and folklore, honored art worker, professor of Tbilisi State Conservatoire.
He is an author of about forty works, has published seven scientist works. O. Chijavadze organized about sixty expeditions in different regions of Georgia in 1954-1986 and great material written during this expedition is invaluable treasure for Georgian folklore.
O. Chijavadze conceded mathematics to Georgian music and folklore and he grounded his decision: “It seems for me that in this field of art is well seen the spiritual culture of Georgian people, its wealthy treasure. No science is true if it isn’t increased with national base. However formula is formula. Different spirit and other nature. Just this case facilitated me to concede mathematics…”
The newest object in the The National Museum of Georgian Folk Songs and Musical Instruments’ Traditional Instruments and Music collection is the diplipito. Played with sticks known as “goat’s legs,” the diplipito is a percussion instrument played in ensembles throughout the Republic of Georgia.
The newest object in the State Museum of Georgian Folk Songs and Musical Instruments is the changi, a harp-like instrument played in Georgia’s Svaneti region. You can listen to the sound of the changi, see how it is constructed, and learn the traditional story of how this haunting instrument came to be.
The State Museum of Georgian Folk Songs and Musical Instruments has created a new object in its Traditional Instruments and Music collection: the gudastviri, a wind instrument similar to a western bagpipe. To hear the gudastviri, click here.